# NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS

**Academic Year 2021/2022**- 1° Year - Curriculum NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS

**Teaching Staff**

- NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS I:
**Alessia Rita TRICOMI** - NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS II:
**Alessia Rita TRICOMI**

**Credit Value:**9

**Scientific field**

- FIS/01 - Experimental physics
- FIS/04 - Nuclear and subnuclear physics

**Taught classes:**63 hours

**Term / Semester:**1°

## Learning Objectives

**NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS I**Our current understanding of the sub-atomic Universe is based on a number of profound theoretical ideas that are embodied in the Standard Model of particle physics. However, the development of the Standard Model would not have been possible without a close interplay between theory and experiment. Starting from the first evidence of the nuclear structure, the course aims to discuss our current understanding of Particle Physics.

**NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS II**Our current understanding of the sub-atomic Universe is based on a number of profound theoretical ideas that are embodied in the Standard Model of particle physics. However, the development of the Standard Model would not have been possible without a close interplay between theory and experiment. Starting from the first evidence of the nuclear structure, the course aims to discuss our current understanding of Particle Physics.

## Course Structure

**NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS I**The course is based on lectures and exercises.

Should the circumstances require online or blended teaching, appropriate modifications to what is hereby stated may be introduced, in order to achieve the main objectives of the course.

**NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS II**The course is based on lectures and exercises.

Should the circumstances require online or blended teaching, appropriate modifications to what is hereby stated may be introduced, in order to achieve the main objectives of the course.

## Detailed Course Content

**NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS I****Introduction**The Standard Model of particle Physics. Interactions of particle with matters. Experiments at accelerator

**Underlying concepts**:Units in particle physics; References to special relativity (Invariant mass, threshold energy, CM and LAB system

**Decay rates and cross section**Fermi’s golden rule. Particle decays. Interaction cross sections. Differential cross section

**The birth of nucleus concept.**Rutherford experiment and the birth of the atomic nucleus concept. Coulomb interaction and its cross section. The discovery of the proton and neutron. The discovery of the positron and muon. The structure of the hadrons: the scattering of electrons on nuclei and nucleons.

**Interaction by particle exchange.**Feynman diagrams and virtual particles. Introduction to QED. Feynman rules for QED.

**Electron–positron annihilation**Electron–positron annihilation. Spin in electron–positron annihilation. Chirality.

**Electron–proton elastic scattering**Probing the structure of the proton. Rutherford and Mott scattering. Form factors. Relativistic electron–proton elastic scattering. The Rosenbluth formula

**Deep inelastic scattering**Electron–proton inelastic scattering. Deep inelastic scattering. Electron–quark scattering. The quark–parton model. Electron–proton scattering at the HERA collider. Parton distribution function measurements

**Symmetries and the quark model**Symmetries in quantum mechanics. Flavour symmetry. Combining quarks into hadron. Ground state baryons wavefunctions. Isospin representation of antiquarks. Meson states. SU(3) flavour symmetry

**The weak interaction**Phenomenology of beta decay. Leptons and neutrinos. Invariances and symmetries. Non conservation of parity in beta decay. Experiment of Wu and collaborators. Cowan-Reines Experiment. Neutrinos and antineutrinos. Mass of the neutrino. Neutrino as particle of Dirac or Majorana?

**The weak interactions of leptons**Lepton universality. Neutrino scattering. Neutrino scattering experiments. Structure functions in neutrino interactions. Charged-current electron–proton scattering.

**NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS II****Introduction**The Standard Model of particle Physics. Interactions of particle with matters. Experiments at accelerator

**Underlying concepts**:Units in particle physics; References to special relativity (Invariant mass, threshold energy, CM and LAB system

**Decay rates and cross section**Fermi’s golden rule. Particle decays. Interaction cross sections. Differential cross section

**The birth of nucleus concept.**Rutherford experiment and the birth of the atomic nucleus concept. Coulomb interaction and its cross section. The discovery of the proton and neutron. The discovery of the positron and muon. The structure of the hadrons: the scattering of electrons on nuclei and nucleons.

**Interaction by particle exchange.**Feynman diagrams and virtual particles. Introduction to QED. Feynman rules for QED.

**Electron–positron annihilation**Electron–positron annihilation. Spin in electron–positron annihilation. Chirality.

**Electron–proton elastic scattering**Probing the structure of the proton. Rutherford and Mott scattering. Form factors. Relativistic electron–proton elastic scattering. The Rosenbluth formula

**Deep inelastic scattering**Electron–proton inelastic scattering. Deep inelastic scattering. Electron–quark scattering. The quark–parton model. Electron–proton scattering at the HERA collider. Parton distribution function measurements

**Symmetries and the quark model**Symmetries in quantum mechanics. Flavour symmetry. Combining quarks into hadron. Ground state baryons wavefunctions. Isospin representation of antiquarks. Meson states. SU(3) flavour symmetry

**The weak interaction**Phenomenology of beta decay. Leptons and neutrinos. Invariances and symmetries. Non conservation of parity in beta decay. Experiment of Wu and collaborators. Cowan-Reines Experiment. Neutrinos and antineutrinos. Mass of the neutrino. Neutrino as particle of Dirac or Majorana?

**The weak interactions of leptons**Lepton universality. Neutrino scattering. Neutrino scattering experiments. Structure functions in neutrino interactions. Charged-current electron–proton scattering.

## Textbook Information

**NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS I**The use of minutes of the lectures as well as of summary papers provided during the course is strongly suggested

Reference books:

W. E. Burcham and M. Jobes, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Pearson Education

Mark Thomson, Modern Particle Physics, Cambridge University Press

B.Pohv et al: Particles and Nuclei; Bollati Boringhieri, Torino.

R.N. Cahn e G. Goldhaber The Experimental Foundations of Particle Physics, Cambridge University Press

**NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS II**The use of minutes of the lectures as well as of summary papers provided during the course is strongly suggested

Reference books:

W. E. Burcham and M. Jobes, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Pearson Education

Mark Thomson, Modern Particle Physics, Cambridge University Press

B.Pohv et al: Particles and Nuclei; Bollati Boringhieri, Torino.

R.N. Cahn e G. Goldhaber The Experimental Foundations of Particle Physics, Cambridge University Press