ARCHAEOMETRYAcademic Year 2022/2023 - Teacher: GIUSEPPE STELLA
Expected Learning Outcomes
The aim of the course is the achievement by the student of physics applied to Cultural Heritage. Specific objective is the knowledge of basic physical principles for the application of the principal methods for the characterization and dating of materials. Particular attention is given to the techniques used for the study of paintings and polychrome works as well as the methodologies that allow to establish the absolute chronology of pottery, bricks, mortar, geological sediments and speleothems.
Knowledge and understanding
Critical understanding of the most advanced developments in Modern Physics in both theoretical and laboratory aspects and their interconnections, even in interdisciplinary fields. Adequate knowledge of advanced mathematical and computer tools of current use in the fields of basic and applied research. High level of competence in the scientific method, and understanding of the nature and methodologies of research in Physics.
Applying knowledge and understanding
Ability to identify the essential elements of a phenomenon, in terms of order of magnitude and level of
approximation necessary, and be able to make the required approximations.
Ability to use the analogy tool to apply known solutions to new problems (problem solving).
Ability to design and implement experimental and theoretical procedures to solve problems of academic
and industrial research or to improve existing results.
Ability to use analytical and numerical mathematical calculation tools and information technology,
including the development of software programs.
Ability to develop new and original approaches and methods.
Ability to work with increasing degrees of autonomy, also assuming responsibility in the planning and
management of projects.
Awareness of safety problems in laboratory work.
Ability to discuss personal interpretations of physical phenomena, confronting each other in the context
of work groups.
Development of a sense of responsibility through the choice of optional courses and the subject of the
Ability to communicate in Italian and English in the advanced fields of Physics. Ability to present their research activity or of scientific data review results to both specialist and nonspecialist audiences; Ability to work in an interdisciplinary group, adapting the modalities of expression to interlocutors of different culture.
Ability to acquire adequate cognitive tools for the continuous updating of knowledge.
Ability to access specialized literature both in the chosen field and in scientifically close fields.
Ability to use databases and bibliographic and scientific resources to extract information and suggestions
for better focusing and developing personal study and research work.
Course StructureThe course is taught in english through lectures (5 CFU - 35 h) and teaching interactive laboratory classes (1 CFU - 15 h). Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus.
Required PrerequisitesElectromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum. Ionizing and nonionizing radiation. E. m. radiation-matter interaction. Atomic and nuclear structure. Radioactive decays. Particle-matter interaction. Physics of detectors and characteristic quantities of radiation detectors.
Attendance of Lessons
Attendance at the course is normally compulsory (please refer to the Course Regulations).
Detailed Course Content
Archaeometry and applied science in Cultural Heritage: Applications of the sciences to study, conservation and restoration in Cultural Heritage.
Color and colorimetry: Optics for color measurements and specification. Physiology of vision and color
perception. Fundamentals of photometry and colorimetry basics. Optical properties of bodies and
materials. Color representation. Color specification.
Imaging techniques: Electron microscopy. Signals from Scanning Electron Microscopy: images using
secondary electrons, back-scattered electrons and X-rays. RGB imaging, IR reflectrometry and UV
Raman Spettrometry: Classical and quantum theory of raman effect. Experimental set-up and signals
detection. Application in Cultural Heritage.
Luminescence Dating: Thermoluminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL).
Physical principles. Age equation. Palaeodose and annula Dose determination. Authenticity testing.
Dating of artifacts, sediments and architectural elements.
ESR Dating: Electron Spin Resonance Spectrometry. Classical and quantum theory of resonance
phenomena. Zeeman interaction, fine and hyperfine structures. ESR spectrometer.
Aitken, M.J , 1985, Thermoluminescence Dating, Academic Press Inc.
Aitken, M.J , 1990, Science-based Dating in Archaeometry, Longman Archaeology Series
Aitken, M.J , 1998, Optical dating of sediments, Academic Press Inc.
Aldrovandi A., Picollo M., 2007, Metodi di documentazione e indagini non invasive sui dipinti, Il Prato Editore (collana I talenti), 112 p., 2 ed.
Ciliberto E., Spoto G., 2000, Modern Analytical Methods in Art and Archaeology, John Wiley & Sons
Edwards H. and Vandenabeele P., 2012, Analytical Archaeometry: Selected Topics, The Royal Society of Chemistry
Ferraro J.R., Nakamoto K., Brown C.W., 2003, Introductory Raman Spectroscopy, Academic Press
Goldstein J., Newbury D. E., Joy D.C., Lyman C.E. , Echlin P., Lifshin E., Sawyer L., Michael J.R., 2003, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis, Springer
Gonzalez R.C., Woods R.E., 2008, Elaborazioni delle immagini digitali, Pearson
Ikeya M., 1993, New application of Electron Spin Resonance – Dating, Dosimetry and Microscopy, World Scientific
Lewis I.R., Edwards H.G.M., 2001, Handbook of Raman Spectroscopy, Marcel Dekker
Long D. A., 1978, The Raman effect, John Wiley and sons Editor
Martini M., 2004, Milazzo M., PIacentini M., Physics Methods in Archaeometry, Società Italiana di Fisica
Oleari C., 2016, Standard Colorimetry: Definitions, Algorithms and Software, John Wiley Sons Inc
Tilley R.J.D., 2011, Colour and the optical properties of materials., Wiley
Turrell G. and Corset J., 1996, Raman Microscopy: Developments and Applications, Elsevier Academic Press
Wyszecki G. and Stiles W. S., 2000, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, John Wiley & Sons
Notes provided by the Professor
|1||Archaeometry: sciences applied to Cultural Heritage||Edwards H. and Vandenabeele P., 2012, Analytical Archaeometry: Selected Topics, The Royal Society of Chemistry|
|2||Color measurement and specification||Oleari C., Standard Colorimetry: Definitions, Algorithms and Software, 2016, John Wiley Sons Inc|
|3||Multispecral imaging techniques||Ciliberto E., Spoto G., 2000, Modern Analytical Methods in Art and Archaeology, John Wiley & Sons|
|4||Raman spectrometry||Turrell G. and Corset J., 1996, Raman Microscopy: Developments and Applications, Elsevier Academic Press|
|5||Dating methodologies by stimlated luminescence||Aitken, M.J , Thermoluminescence Dating & Optical dating of sediments, Academic Press Inc.|
|6||Dating by Electron Spin Resonance||Ikeya M., New application of Electron Spin Resonance – Dating, Dosimetry and Microscopy, World Scientific|
Learning Assessment Procedures
The examination consists of an interview on the topics of the program and the discussion of a paper related to the description and processing of experimental data on a laboratory experience carried out during the teaching period.
The evaluation of the interview and the discussion of the paper contribute equally to the formulation of the final grade and, therefore, to the examination grade. The evaluation of the interview is based primarily on the relevance of the answers to the questions formulated and the ability to connect with other topics covered in the program. An integral part of the oral interview is the discussion of the paper concerning the laboratory experience, taking into account, in particular, the quality of the content, the technical language property and the overall expressive ability of the student.
Verification of learning may also be conducted electronically, should conditions require it.
Examples of frequently asked questions and / or exercises
The questions below are not an exhaustive list but represent only a few examples
- The role of Raman spectrometry for the study of Cultural Heritage.
- Physical methodologies for Cultural Heritage and information that can be obtained.
- Dating of ceramics and sediments by stimulated luminescence.
- Dating of speleothems by Electronic Spin Resonance.
- Radioactive contents measurements by gamma spectrometry.
- Experimental measurements for color specification.