Academic Year 2016/2017 - 1° Year - Curriculum FISICA APPLICATA
Teaching Staff: Anna Maria GUELI
Credit Value: 6
Scientific field: FIS/07 - Applied physics
Taught classes: 42 hours
Term / Semester:

Learning Objectives

The aim of the course is the achievement by the student of physics applied to Cultural Heritage. Specific objective is the knowledge of basic physical principles for the application of the principal methods for the characterization and dating of materials. Particular attention is given to the techniques used for the study of paintings and polychrome works as well as the methodologies that allow to establish the absolute chronology of pottery, bricks, mortar, geological sediments and speleothems.

Detailed Course Content

Introduction: Applications of the sciences to study, conservation and restoration in Cultural Heritage.

Color and colorimetry: Optics for color measurements and specification. Physiology of vision and color perception. Fundamentals of photometry and colorimetry basics. Optical properties of bodies and materials. Color representation. Color specification.

Imaging techniques: Electron microscopy. Signals from Scanning Electron Microscopy: images using secondary electrons, back-scattered electrons and X-rays. RGB imaging, IR reflectrometry and UV images.

Raman Spettrometry: Classical and quantum theory of raman effect. Experimental set-up and signals detection. Application in Cultural Heritage.

Luminescence Dating: Thermoluminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL). Physical principles. Age equation. Palaeodose and annula Dose determination. Authenticity testing. Dating of artifacts, sediments and architectural elements.

ESR Dating: Electron Spin Resonance Spectrometry. Classical and quantum theory of resonance phenomena. Zeeman interaction, fine and hyperfine structures. ESR spectrometer.

U/Th Dating: Natural radioactive series. Sequential decay. U and Th geochemistry. Alpha spectrometry. Age determination.

Other Dating Methods: Dendrochronology. Radiocarbon. Potassium – Argon method. Fission track method. Racemization of amino acids.

Textbook Information

Aitken, M.J , Thermoluminescence Dating, Academic Press Inc.

Aitken, M.J , Science-based Dating in Archaeometry, Longman Archaeology Series

Aitken, M.J , Optical dating of sediments, Academic Press Inc.

Aldrovandi A., Picollo M., 2007, Metodi di documentazione e indagini non invasive sui dipinti, Il Prato Editore (collana I talenti), 112 p., 2 ed.

Edwards H. and Vandenabeele P., 2012, Analytical Archaeometry: Selected Topics, The Royal Society of Chemistry

Ferraro J.R., Nakamoto K., Brown C.W., Introductory Raman Spectroscopy, Academic Press, 2003

Goldstein J., Newbury D.E., Joy D.C., Lyman C.E. , Echlin P., Lifshin E., Sawyer L., Michael J.R., 2003, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis, Springer, 695 p., 3 ed.

Gonzalez R. C., Woods R. E., 2008, Elaborazioni delle immagini digitali, Pearson, 840 p., 3 ed.

Ikeya M., New application of Electron Spin Resonance – Dating, Dosimetry and Microscopy, World Scientific

Lewis I.R., Edwards H.G.M., Handbook of Raman Spectroscopy, Marcel Dekker, 2001

Long D. A., The Raman effect, John Wiley and sons Editor

Martini M., Milazzo M., Piacentini M., Physics Methods in Archaeometry

Oleari Claudio (edited by), 2008, Misurare il colore. Fisiologia della visione a colori. Fotometria. Colorimetria e norme internazionali, Hoepli, 442 p., 2 ed.

Tilley R.J.D., 2011, Colour and the optical properties of materials., Wiley, 510 p.

Turrell G. and Corset J., Raman Microscopy: Developments and Applications, Elsevier Academic Press, 1996.

Wyszecki G., Stiles W.S., 2000, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, John Wiley & Sons, 968 p., 3 ed.

Lecture notes provided during the course.