Academic Year 2015/2016 - 2° Year - Curriculum FISICA DELLA MATERIA
Teaching Staff: Maria Grazia GRIMALDI and Francesco RUFFINO
Credit Value: 6
Scientific field: FIS/01 - Experimental physics
Taught classes: 48 hours
Term / Semester:

Detailed Course Content

1) Introduction: mesoscopic Physics and Nanotechnology

Trends in nanoelectronics- characteristic length in mesoscopic systems- Quantum Coherence - quantum-wells, wires, dots-density of states and dimensionality-Heterostructures


2) Recall of some solid state physics concepts

Wave-particle duality and the principle of Heisenberg-Schrödinger equation and its application- Fermi-Dirac distribution -free electron model in a solid- density of states- Bloch theorem- electrons in a crystalline solid- dynamics of electrons in bands energy (equation of motion, effective mass, holes) - phonons


3) Recall of some concepts of physics of semiconductors

energy bands in semiconductor-intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors-concentrations of electrons and holes in semiconductors - transport in semiconductors (transport in an electric field, mobility, diffusion; continuity equation, the carrier lifetime and diffusion length) – degenerate semiconductors


4) Physics of low-dimensional semiconductors


fundamental properties of two-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures – quantum well- quantum wires- quantum dots- band diagram


5) semiconductor nanostructures and heterostructures

MOSFET - heterojunctions- Quantum well multiple heterostructures (the concept of the heterostructure and the Kronig-Penney model)


6) Transport in nanostructures due to electric field

parallel transport (electronic scattering mechanisms, some experimental observations) - perpendicular transport (Resonant Tunneling, electric field effects in heterostructures) - quantum transport in nanostructures (quantized conductance; Landauer formula; Formula Landauer-Büttiker; Coulomb blockade)


7) transport in nanostructures in presence of external the magnetic field and quantum Hall effect

Effect of a magnetic field on a crystal - low-dimensional systems in a magnetic field - density of states of a two-dimensional system in a magnetic field -the effect Aharonov-Bohm - the effect Shubnikov de Haas -The quantum Hall effect (experimental facts and elementary theory, the border states, extended and localized states) - fractional quantum Hall effect


8) Electronic devices based on nanostructures

MODFET - heterojunction bipolar transistor – resonant tunneling transistor - Esaki diode – single electron transistor - graphene based transistor.

Textbook Information

1) “Nanotechnology for Microelectronics and Optoelectronics”, J. M. Martinez-Duart, R. J. Martin-Palma, F. Agullo-Rueda, Elsevier 2006

2) “Quantum Transport-Atom to transistor”, S. Datta, Cambridge University Press 2005

3) “Transport in Nanostructures”, D. K. Ferry, S. M. Goodnick, J. Bird, Cambridge University Press 2009

4) “The Physics of low-dimensional semiconductors-an introduction”, J. H. Davies, Cambridge University Press 1998.