Academic Year 2021/2022 - 1° Year - Curriculum APPLIED PHYSICS and Curriculum NUCLEAR PHENOMENA AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
Teaching Staff: David MASCALI
Credit Value: 6
Scientific field: FIS/07 - Applied physics
Taught classes: 42 hours
Term / Semester:

Learning Objectives

The course aims to give students an in-depth knowledge of all the principles of Physics on which he particle accelerators is based and to demonstrate in detail the technology that makes these machines possible. The applications of accelerators in other research fields different from nuclear and particle physics will also be shown. Particular attention will be given to medical applications and for this will be given the physical knowledge related to the interaction of radiation with matter.Knowledge and understanding (knowledge and understanding). Critical understanding of the main concepts underlying the dynamics of the motion of beams of electrons and ions in circular and lineal accelerators. Understanding of the methods of deduction of the fundamental physical mechanisms involved beautiful application of electron beams, photons and ions in applications in the medical field. Ability to apply knowledge and understanding Ability to identify the essential elements of phenomena related to particle acceleration and their production, in terms of order of size and level of approximation needed, and be able to make approximations requests. Ability to use the analogy tool to apply solutions known in the field of the interaction particles-electromagnetic fields and of the physics of the plasmas to new problems (problem solving) and different contexts of nuclear physics and its applications to medicine. Communication skills (communication skills). Communication skills in particle accelerators, plasma physics and applications to medicine Learning skills. Acquisition of adequate cognitive tools for the continuous updating of the knowledge and the ability to access specialized literature in the field of accelerator physics, plasmas and aviation techniques based on particle accelerators (Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Oncology Radiotherapy) and in the field of clinical dosimetry.

Course Structure

Should the circumstances require online or blended teaching, appropriate modifications to what is hereby stated may be introduced, in order to achieve the main objectives of the course

Face to face lessons in classroom.

Detailed Course Content

  1. Dosimetry of gamma radiation from an X-Ray tube (30 – 300 KVp)
    1. X-ray tube basis
    2. Quality assurance of an X-ray tube
    3. Code of practice of low-energy kilovoltage X-ray beams
    4. Dosimetry equipment
    5. Determination of the absorbed dose to water for a low-energy X-Ray beam
    6. Dosimetric worksheet
  2. Dosimetry of high-energy photon beams
    1. General
    2. Dosimetry equipment
    3. Beam quality specifications
    4. Determination of the absorbed dose to water
    5. Values for K_q,q0
    6. Cross-calibration of field ionisation chamber


Electric fields and magnetic fields: the electromagnetic field. Equations of the motion of charged particles in magnetic fields. Laws of the focusing of particle beams. Radio frequency cavity. Production and transmission of electromagnetic waves. Stability of electromagnetic waves. Plasma physics: Definition of plasma. Concept of temperature of a plasma. Screen distance of Debye. Oscillations of the plasma. Characteristic parameters of the plasmas. Collisional and non-collisional plasmas. Description kinetics of the plasmas. Distribution function. Moments of the distribution function. Equation of Vlasov. Interaction of radiation and particles with matter with matter: Introduction to dosimetry. Clinical dosimetry of electron, photon and hadron beams. Detectors for clinical Dosimetry. Gas detectors, calorimeters, solid state detectors, thermolunsing and optical. Particle accelerations based on high power lasers: Eulerian and Lagrangian points of view. Forces acting on a laser matter interaction. Formation of high temperature plasmas. Production of plasma waves and acceleration of electrons and ions in high temperature plasmas. Particle beam transport systems: motion equations; Magfnetic and electrostatic lenses; dipoles, quadrupoles and sextuples; Selection systems in energy and charge; magnetic spectrometers. Application of Accelerators to medicine: Morphological and functional imaging; Imaging machines (CT, PET and RM); radiopharmaceutical production; accelerators for radiotherapy with external beams (Cyclotron, Linac and synchrotrons).

Textbook Information

1) F.H. Attix "Introduction to Radiological Physics and Radiation Dosimetry" Wiley VCH

2) Leo W.R. "Techniques for Nuclear and Partcle Physics Experiments" Springer and Verla, 2nd Ed.

3) G.F. Knoll, " Radiation Detection and Measurements" John Wiley & Sons, 3rd Ed.

4) J.J. Livingood, " Principls of cyclic particle accelerators", D. Van Nostrand Comp. INC.

5) P.J. Bryant, "Introduction to Transfer Lines and Circular Machines" CERN accellerators School, CERN 84-04

6) H.E. Jones, "The Physics of Radiology", C. Thomas Publisher, 1983

7) K.Q. Zhang and D.J. Li, "Electromagnetic Theory for Microwaves and Optoelectronics", 2nd edition, Springer Press, N.Y. 2008

8) CAS Cern Accelerator School, " Cyclotrons, linacs and Their application", 96-02