Light management and the dream of photovoltaic energy for 0.01 €/kWh
With over 2000 km2 of solar panels generating 300 GWp worldwide, photovoltaics is becoming an important source of energy for our society. The efficiency of solar energy conversion using single-junction semiconductor solar cells has now reached 27% for silicon and 29% for GaAs. However, so far no material has reached the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit of 34%. I will discuss recent developments in photovoltaic materials technology that can be applied at ultra-large scale, with a focus on how improved light management can lead to efficiencies beyond the SQ limit and can reduce costs, with the ultimate goal to generate solar electricity at a cost of 0.01 $/kWh.