# LAB. DI FISICA I M - Z

Academic Year 2015/2016 - 1° Year
Teaching Staff: Cristina Natalina TUVÈ
Credit Value: 15
Scientific field: FIS/01 - Experimental physics
Taught classes: 60 hours
Term / Semester:

## Detailed Course Content

The course is 15 CFU. 150 hours including classroom lessons and laboratory exercises.

In particular, it is provided 60 hours of lectures and 90 hours of guided exercises in the laboratory.

Analysis of the experimental data (40 hours):

- The Scientific Method
- The measurement of physical quantities. Definition (operational) of physical quantities and its measurement. Fundamental and derived quantities. Units of measurement and units of measurement systems: The International System.
- Presentation of the measures and significant digits. Read a formula and verify its correctness (dimensional analysis)

- Features of a measuring instrument
- Errors and / or uncertainties. Systematic and random errors.
- The total error in measurements, relative error, degree of precision.

- Measures single and / or multiple. The best estimate of the error (mode, median and mean)
- Standard deviation, population standard deviation, and sample average.
- Error propagation.
- Representation of data: tables, diagrams and graphs.
- Histograms: discreetly to limit distribution.
- The distribution of Gaussian distribution as a limit for measures affected by random errors.
- The measure of a physical quantity influenced by random events and estimate of the expected value.
- Size in probabilistic terms.
- Elements of probability theory.
- The criterion of maximum likelihood.
- Probability distributions: Gaussian, Binomial, Poisson.
- Test of chi-square.
- Graphic and functional relationships
- Description of laboratory experiences

Statistics (20h)

- Random events, aleatorie- variables classical definition, relative frequency and axiomatic probability - Total probability, conditional probability, likely composed- Bayes Theorem -Convergence statistics - statistics and covariance independence - Statistical population - sampling - law of large numbers - mathematical expectation for discrete and continuous random variables - probability density - moments - moment generating functions and characteristic function • Bernoulli distribution • Poisson distribution • Gaussian distribution • • χ2-distribution distribution • central limit theorem • statistical indices and their sample estimates

Laboratory experiments (90 hours ):

Measures of lengths: Caliper, palmer • Inclined plane • • Fletcher and Atwood Machine Device • Simple pendulum • Physic Pendulum• Kater reversible pendulum • Pendulum ball, spherometer • Pendulum on bow • Torsion Pendulum • Needle Maxwell • Springs • moment of inertia of a flywheel • rotational kinetic energy.

Pycnometer • Mohr-Westphal balance • viscometer Ostwald • Tension • Venturi tube • Sedimentation.
Calorimeter mixtures of Regnault • Heat propagation in a homogeneous beam • -Equazione perfect gas state of Desormes • Experience and Clement • Kundt Tube • Galton Quinconce

## Textbook Information

1. J.R. Taylor: Introduzione all'analisi degli errori. Lo studio delle incertezze nelle misure fisiche, Zanichelli
2. M. Loreti: Teoria degli Errori e Fondamenti di Statistica, Decibel, Padova
3. R. Ricamo: Guida alle Esperimentazioni di Fisica, Ed. Ambrosiana, Milano
4. E. Perucca: Fisica Generale e Sperimentale, UTET, Torino
5. F.Tyler: A Laboratory Manual of Physics E.Arnould, London
6. lecture slides