# FISICA GENERALE I A - LModule DIDATTICA FRONTALE

**Academic Year 2023/2024**- Teacher:

**Stefano ROMANO**

## Expected Learning Outcomes

The training objective of the course is to provide an organic knowledge of classical mechanics and thermodynamics.

The training path to acquire this result is as follows:

● Study of the fundamental laws of classical mechanics of the material point and systems of points with particular regard to kinematics, Newton's laws and conservation principles.

● Study of the dynamics of the rigid body

● Study of universal gravitation

● Study of oscillatory and wave phenomena

● Study of fluid mechanics

● Study of elements of thermology

● Study of the laws of thermodynamics and applications to different physical systems.

The approach to the description of the systems and phenomena described above will be experimental like and the physical theories will be presented in terms of logical and mathematical structure and of experimental evidence. At the end of the course, the student will have acquired inductive and deductive reasoning skills, will be able to outline a phenomenon in terms of physical quantities and to set up a problem and solve it with analytical methods. The student will apply the scientific method to the study of natural phenomena and will be able to critically evaluate similarities and differences between physical systems and the methodologies to be applied. The student will be able to expose a topic of classical mechanics and / or thermodynamics with language properties, focusing on the inductive / deductive process which, from the starting hypotheses, allows one to reach conclusions.

**Knowledge
and understanding**

Critical understanding of physics laws both in
theoretical and laboratory aspects and their interconnections, also in
interdisciplinary fields.

**Applying
knowledge and understanding**

Ability to identify the essential elements in a phenomenon, in terms of orders
of magnitude and approximation level, and being able to perform the required
approximations

Ability to use analogy as a tool to apply known solutions to new problems (problem solving). Ability to develop experimental and theoretical procedures to solve new problems.

**Making
judgements**

Ability to convey own interpretations of physical phenomena, when discussing within a research team.

**Communication skills**

Ability to discuss about physical concepts, both in Italian and in English..

Ability to present and discuss the procedure to solve problems.

**Learning
skills**

Ability to acquire adequate tools for the continuous update of one's knowledge. Ability to use texts and bibliographic resources to improve one's knowledge.

## Course Structure

frontal teaching with student involvement.

## Required Prerequisites

*It is
fundamental for the student to have mastery of the subjects of elementary
mathematics (algebra, geometry, trigonometry, analytical geometry) and knowledge
of those of mathematical analysis(differential and integral calculus). In fact,
for the presentation of the physical concepts included in the course content,
the following mathematical tools are used: equations and systems of 1st and 2 ^{nd}
degree equations, trigonometric functions and their properties, exponential functions
and their properties, logarithmic functions and their properties, equations of
loci in the plane and in space, derivatives and integrals of functions of one
variable, constant coefficient linear differential equations. For the self-paced learning,
and/or consolidation, of the required preliminary knowledge, the mathematics
and basic calculus courses available on e-learning platforms such as, for
example, Federica Web Learning and Coursera for Campus, to which students of the
University have access, may be useful.*

## Attendance of Lessons

Mandatory, as stated in the Didactic Regulation

## Detailed Course Content

**Mechanics
of material point: **kinematics: motion in one, two, three dimensions; reference systems and relative motions; laws
of dynamics; strength, work, kinetic energy; momentum; conservative forces, potential energy; conservation theorems; angular momentum; moment
of a force/torque; central forces

**Mechanics
of systems of material points:** center
of mass, reduced mass; momentum
conservation; angular
momentum conservation; Konig
theorems; kinetic energy theorem; elastic and inelastic collisions.

**Dynamics
of the rigid body: **definition of a rigid body; rotations around a fixed axis; moment
of inertia; Huygens-Steiner theorem; pure
rolling motion; angular impulse and moment of impulse; ellipsoid of inertia; gyroscope; free
rigid body; static.

**Gravitation:** Kepler's laws; law of
universal gravitation; inertial and gravitational mass; gravitational field; gravitational potential energy; Gauss
theorem; calculation of orbits.

**Elastic
properties of solids:** traction and compression; scrolling; compressibility; torsion balance.

**Oscillations and waves:** harmonic oscillator; Damped
harmonic oscillator; forced
harmonic oscillator; resonance; longitudinal and transverse waves; Fourier analysis; physical nature of sound.

**Mechanical
properties of fluids:** fluids
statics: law of Stevino, Pascal, and Archimedes; fluids
dynamics; steady
regime and Bernoulli's theorem; viscosity; laminar and vortex motion.

**Thermodynamics:** temperature and thermometry; equation of state for gases; kinetic theory of gases; work
and heat; first
law of thermodynamics; second
law of thermodynamics; entropy; thermodynamic transformations; thermodynamic potentials; phase
changes; real gases; third law of thermodynamics.

## Textbook Information

1) R. Mazzoldi, M. Nigro, C. Voci, Fisica – Vol. I , EdiSES - Napoli (Italia)

2) Focardi S., Massa I., Uguzzoni A., Villa M. - Fisica generale - MECCANICA E TERMODINAMICA, Casa editrice Ambrosiana

3) Halliday, Resnick, Krane, Fisica 1, Casa editrice Ambrosiana

4) Zemansky, Calore e Termodinamica, Zanichelli

5) Fermi, Termodinamica, Bollati Boringhieri

## Course Planning

Subjects | Text References | |
---|---|---|

1 | Mechanics of material point: 14 hours | |

2 | Mechanics of systems of material points: 10 hours | |

3 | Dynamics of the rigid body: 10 hours | |

4 | Gravitation: 10 hours | |

5 | Elastic properties of solids: 4 hours | |

6 | Oscillations and waves: 14 hours | |

7 | Mechanical properties of fluids: 8 hours | |

8 | THERMODYNAMICS: 21 hours |

## Learning Assessment

### Learning Assessment Procedures

The exam consists of a written test and an oral interview. The written test consists of 3 (or 4) problems to be solved in a maximum time of 2 hours. To know the type of problems proposed, consult the website http://nanostar.jimdo.com/.The evaluation of the written test will take into account the problem solving approach, the

correctness of the numerical calculations and significant values, the arguments supporting the procedure followed. The minimum mark for admission to the oral exam is 18/30.The evaluation of the oral interview will take into account the student's ability to use orders of magnitude in the analysis of a phenomenon, the ability to critically evaluate similarities and differences between physical systems, the level of depth of the contents exposed and its properties of language and of exposure.The written test has limited validity, it is necessary to complete the exam by passing the oral

exam in the same calendar year as the written test. If the student does not complete the exam

within the calendar year, he must repeat the written test.

**In addition, for attending students:**the
exam can be divided into two partial tests: one relating to mechanicsand
gravitation (first partial test) and the second relating to thermodynamics,and
fluid mechanics (second partial test). Passing both partial tests willdetermine
the achievement of the exam. These partial tests are to be consideredadditional
opportunities with respect to the exams and do not precludeparticipation in the
ordinary exam sessions.Both partial tests consist of a written test and an oral
interview. Thewritten test consists of 3 problems to be solved in a maximum
time of 2 hours(http://nanostar.jimdo.com/). The minimum mark for admission to
the respectiveoral interviews is 15/30.

The first test takes place at the end of the first teaching period, in theFebruary exam session. Students who pass the written test will have access tothe oral interview which will determine admission to the second partial test. The second partial test can be held in each of the ordinary sessions of thesecond and third session, according to the official calendar. The student whohas passed the second written test will have access to the oral interview whichwill determine the final result of the exam.The student who passes the second written test is allowed to take thesecond oral interview even in a subsequent session, as long as it is within thecalendar year of the written test.

The two partial written tests can be replaced by ongoing tests to bescheduled in agreement between the teacher and students.

**Information fo students with disabilities and/or SLD**

In order to guarantee equal opportunities and in compliance with the laws in force, interestedstudents can ask for a personal interview in order to plan any compensatory and/or dispensatory

measures, according to the educational objectives and specific needs. It is also possible tocontact the CInAP (Centro l'Integrazione Attiva e Partecipata - Servizi per le Disabilità e/o DSA)

contact-person of the Department, Prof. Catia Petta.### Examples of frequently asked questions and / or exercises

- Fundamental laws and principles of Physics (e.g. laws of dynamics, principle of conservation of total mechanical energy, principles of thermodynamics, etc.)

- proof of fundamental theorems (e.g. kinetic energy theorem, angular momentum theorem, Bernoulli theorem, Carnot theorem, Clausius theorem, etc.)